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阅读 6758 次 历史版本 0个 创建者:桃花石上幽兰(2011/12/16 10:47:30) 最新编辑:桃花石上幽兰(2011/12/16 10:47:30)
长穗桑
拼音:Chángsuì Sāng
同义词条:黔鄂桑,黄蚕桑、花桑
目录[ 隐藏 ]
  长穗桑,又称黔鄂桑(贵州),黄蚕桑、花桑,是重要农作物栽培桑的野生近缘种,产于中国南部地区。 

学科分类


长穗桑
长穗桑
  命名来源:[Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. … 58: 88 1921]

  中国植物志:23(1):015

  英文植物志:5:24

  种中文名:长穗桑

  种拉丁名:Morus wittiorum Hand.-Mazz.

  科中文名:桑科

  科拉丁名:Moraceae

  属中文名:桑属

  属拉丁名:Morus  

形态特征


  落叶乔木或灌木,高4-12米;树皮灰白色,幼枝亮褐色,皮孔明显;冬芽卵圆形。

  叶纸质,长圆形至宽椭圆形,长8-12厘米,宽5-9厘米,表面绿色,背面浅绿色,两面无毛,或幼时叶背主脉和侧脉上生短柔毛,边缘上部具粗浅牙齿或近全缘,先端尖尾状,基部圆形或宽楔形,基生叶脉三出,侧生2脉延长至中部以上,侧脉3-4对;叶柄长1.5-3.5厘米,上面有浅槽;托叶狭卵形,长4毫米。花雌雄异株,穗状花序具柄;雄花序腋生,总花梗短,雄花花被片近圆形,绿色;雌花序长9-15厘米,总花梗长2- 3厘米,雌花无梗,花被片黄绿色,覆瓦状排列,子房1室,花柱极短,柱头2裂。聚花果狭圆筒形,长10-16厘米,核果卵圆形。花期4-5月,果期5-6月。 

产地


  长穗桑产湖北、湖南、广西(平南、大苗山)、广东(乐昌)、贵州省东北部至南部。生于海拔900-1400米的山坡疏林中或山脚沟边。  

用途


  长穗桑根、枝、叶、果实均可作药用,韧皮纤维可以造纸或作绳索;嫩叶可以饲蚕。 

化学成分与生物活性


  对长穗桑茎皮95%乙醇提取物和水提取物分别进行抗氧化和降糖活性筛选,结果表明,95%乙醇提取物的乙酸乙酯部位有显着的抗氧化活性;95%乙醇提取物的丙酮、甲醇部位以及水提取物有明显的降糖活性。 本论文运用多种色谱技术和波谱技术,并结合化学方法,对长穗桑茎皮的乙醇提取物和水提取物分别进行了系统的化学成分研究,并对其中的单体化合物进行了生物活性筛选。长穗桑茎皮采自广西壮族自治区金秀县,由广西中医学院刘寿养教授鉴定。 从长穗桑茎皮中共分离鉴定了74个化合物,包括乙醇提取物中得到63个,以及水提取物中得到11个。其中31个化合物(1-31)为新化合物,其余均为首次从该植物中分离得到。从乙醇提取物中分离并鉴定的63个化合物中,包括24个Diels-Alder型加合物,30个2-苯基苯并呋喃类衍生物,6个黄酮类化合物,3个二苯乙烯类化合物,分别为:wittiorumin A(1),wittiorumin B(2),wittiorumin C(3),wittiorumin D(4),wittiorumin E(5),wittioruminF(6),wittiorumin G(7),wittifuran A(8),wittifuran B(9),wittifuran C(10),wittifuran D(11),wittifuranE(12),wittifuran F(13),wittifuran G(14),wittifuranH(15),wittifuran I(16),wittifuran J(17),wittifuran K(18),wittifuran L(19),wittifuran M(20),wittifuran N(21),wittifuran O(22),wittifuranP(23),wittifuran Q(24),wittifuranR(25),wittifuranS(26),wittifuranT(27),wittifuranU(28),wittifuran V(29),wittifuran W(30),wittifuran X(31),chalcomoracin(32),mongolicin F(33),mulberrofuran J(34),mulberrofuran K(35),mulberrofuran G(36),guangsangon L(37),kuwanon J(38),kuwanon X(39),guangsangon G(40),guangsangon B(41),guangsangon D(42),kuwanon P(43),albafuranC(44),sorocein A(45),mulberrofuranE(46),mulberrofuran F(47),mulberrofuran O(48),moracin M(49),moracin C(50),2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,6-dihydroxybenzofuran(51),moracin P(52),mulberroside C(53),austrafuran C(54),quercetin(55),5,7,3‘,4'-Tetrahydroxy-3-metho-xyflavone(56),norartocarpanone(57),dihydrokaempferol(58),euchrenone a7(59),morachalcone A(60),resveratrol(61),oxyresveratrol(62),4'-Prenyloxyresveratrol(63)。 从长穗桑茎皮水提取物中分离并鉴定的11个化合物中,包括7个多羟基生物碱类化合物,2个酰胺类化合物,1个氨基酸,以及甜菜碱,分别为:1-deoxynojirimycin(64),fagomine(65),3-epi-fagomine(66),1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol(67),2-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycin(68),4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-fagomine(69),1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-arabinitol(70),(2S)-citrullina-mide(71),grateloupinamide(72),asparagic acid(73),betaine(74)。 另外,结合降糖活性筛选,分别对95%乙醇提取物的丙酮、甲醇部位进行分离后发现,具有抑制α-葡萄糖苷酶活性部分的物质基础均为多羟基生物碱类化合物。 通过对长穗桑茎皮乙醇提取物中分离到的15个2-苯基苯并呋喃类化合物(化合物8-11,13-14,17-18,21-27)的正离子ESI-MS/MSn质谱进行分析后发现,化合物中含有异戊烯基,()牛儿基等取代基,一般发生苄基裂解。此外,这些取代基往往与邻位羟基环合形成六元氧环,此类化合物的ESI-MS/MSn质谱裂解因六元氧环部分的差异而有所不同。而且,不同结构类型的2-苯基苯并呋喃类化合物裂解后产生特征离子,可用于此类化合物的快速检测以及在线鉴定。 长穗桑茎皮乙醇提取物乙酸乙酯部分中分离到的29个化合物(化合物1-3,8,10,12-14,16-17,21-23,25-26,33-36,39-41,43,45,47,49-51,56),浓度为10-5 M时,对Fe2+-半胱氨酸诱导的肝微粒体脂质过氧化有抑制活性(抑制率>50%)。在抑制PAF刺激的多形核白细胞β-葡萄糖苷酸酶释放的模型上,11个化合物(化合物10-11,16,32,34,49-51,54,60,62)具有抗炎活性(抑制率大于50%,P<0.05)。 采用MTT法测定了长穗桑茎皮中分离得到的56个化合物对五种人肿瘤细胞(A549:人肺腺癌细胞;Bel-7402:人肝癌细胞;BGC-823:大胃癌细胞;HCT-8:人结肠癌细胞;A2780:人卵巢癌细胞)的抑制作用。结果显示26个化合物(化合物8,10-11,13-14,16,21-26,29,32-36,39,47,50-52,56,61,62),对入癌细胞有抑制作用;水提取物中得到的单体化合物(化合物64-73)均无抗肿瘤活性(超过10μg/mL,认为无活性)。 对长穗桑茎皮水提取物中得到的10个化合物进行α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性(蔗糖底物)筛选,测试结果显示7个多羟基生物碱(化合物64-70)以及1个酰胺类化合物(化合物72)有较强的抑制α-葡萄糖苷酶的活性,40μg/mL时抑制率均大于80%。其中化合物64的IC50为0.07μM;化合物68的IC50为0.39μM,与阳性对照阿卡波糖(Acarbose)(IC50=0.52μM)相当;化合物69,70,72的IC50值在1-5μM。




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